Limitations of Copper and Copper Alloys As Electrode Material in EDM

Wire and sinker type electrical discharge machining (EDM) extensively employs copper and its alloys as the electrode material. However, due to the process necessities, the requirements vary with sinker and wire EDM. Since the electrodes play an important role in the conformity of the final output to the design, it is essential to understand the requirements and characteristics of the electrode material to assess the limitations of copper and its alloys.

Requirements of an electrode material:

Apart from common requirements such as cost and electrical conductivity, the following requirements are expected, depending on the type of EDM.

Sinker EDM:

The electrode material requires being a good conductor of heat along with being easily machinable. Given the temperatures at which the machining takes place, it is expected of the electrode material to endure high temperature without undergoing deformation. Although from the outset the EDM looks like a process without any physical stress, at a microscopic level, the electrodes are under a high amount of stress due to continuous sparks during the machining process. The ability to withstand this stress without wear is essential as an electrode.

Wire EDM:

The Electrode in wire EDM is required to be ductile, which eliminates an excellent sinker EDM electrode material, graphite. The wire EDM is prone to frequent flushing of the machined parts and therefore the electrode material is required to offer reasonable resistance to sparks.

Limitations of copper and its alloys as electrode material:

Sinker EDM:

The most important limitation of copper as an electrode is its vulnerability towards the sparks generated during machining process. In comparison with graphite electrodes, copper electrodes last only half as much. Pure copper is highly malleable. This makes it difficult to be machined and it tends to clog the grinding wheel during manufacturing. The burrs on the outer surface of the copper electrodes also pose a challenge. Sometimes the deburring of an electrode takes longer than the manufacturing of electrode itself. To eliminate the machinability issues concerning copper, it is mixed with tellurium. The tellurium copper thus obtained is relatively more machinable than pure copper, although it has lower performance characteristics, as evidenced by increased wear and decreased metal removal rate. In addition, the scarcity of tellurium copper also affects the viability of its widespread use as an electrode material. On the other hand, brass, an easily available alloy of copper, suffers from high rate of wear, sometimes as high as 6 times the base metal. However, during finishing, the corner wear of brass lowers to 0.7 times the base metal volume. As a result of the high wear characteristic of brass electrodes, they are typically only used for drilling holes and cavity sinking. Similarly, copper is also limited to drilling holes and creating slots and not used in applications needing high accuracy and detail. Copper and copper alloys also face a disadvantage before they are put in use. As they come in rolled forms, they are susceptible to stress while being wire cut as an electrode.

Wire EDM:

As mentioned, graphite, a widely used electrode material in sinker EDM, is rendered useless in wire EDM due to their lack of malleability. Hence, copper and its alloys are preferred electrode material despite their shortcomings. Copper Based Master Alloy is marred by its inability to sustain stress during operations, which more often than not results in wire cuts. During operation this presents a challenge as the wire has to re-attached to the spool again and is bound to change the orientation of the of the base metal. Along with that, they are difficult to flush during off operation. Despite all these inadequacies, brass is widely used as wire EDM electrode and copper is preferred for finishing operations.


PGA Tour Events

American football is a sport that is enjoyed by millions of people across the United States. It is a game that is filled with excitement and suspense, and one that can be quite addicting. If you’re new to the sport, there are a few things you should know about American football events

The Super Bowl is the biggest and most important American football event of the year. It is the annual championship game of the National Football League (NFL).

The game is usually played on the first Sunday in February and is watched by millions of people around the world. The NFL Draft is another big event in the world of American football. It is held every April and is where teams select new players for their rosters.

The NFL Draft is a three-day event that is attended by thousands of fans and media members. The Pro Bowl is the annual all-star game of the NFL. It is typically played the week before the Super Bowl. The Pro Bowl is a chance for the best players in the league to showcase their talents. These are just a few of the big American football events that take place every year. If you’re a fan of the sport, be sure to check them out.
I have always been fascinated by the stars. As a child, I would spend hours lying on my back in the backyard, gazing up at the twinkling lights in the sky and wondering what was out there. That childlike sense of wonder has stayed with me into adulthood, and it is one of the things that I love most about my job as an astrophysicist. In my work, I often get to step outside and look up at the night sky, and it never fails to fill me with a sense of wonder. I am constantly reminded of how small we are in the grand scheme of things, and how much there is still to discover. It is this sense of wonder that drives me to keep searching for answers, and it is what I hope to instill in others through my work.

The night sky has always been a source of wonder for humanity. For as long as we have looked up at the stars, we have been trying to understand their purpose and their meaning. In recent years, we have made great strides in our understanding of the universe, but there is still so much that we do not know. The more we learn, the more we realize how little we actually know. It is this sense of wonder and discovery that drives me to continue learning, and it is what I hope to instill in others through my work.

While the scientific community has made great strides in understanding the universe, there is still much to be learned. In my work as an astrophysicist, I often get to step outside and look up at the night sky. It is this sense of wonder and discovery that drives me to continue learning, and it is what I hope to instill in others through my work.


Get Ready for aued excitement With These Upcoming Sports Events

The world of sports is always exciting, and there are a number of upcoming events that promise to be especially thrilling. The Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro will be an amazing spectacle, as always. Fans of international soccer will be looking tennessee vs miami forward to the European Championship in France, while American football enthusiasts will be counting down the days until the start of the NFL season. And then there’s the World Cup, which will take place in Russia in 2018. If you’re looking for some excitement in your life, these are all events that you won’t want to miss.

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The NASCAR Cup Series Ally 400 runs on June 26 at the Nashville Superspeedway. Last year’s inaugural race delivered “a tremendous response,” Erik Moses, Nashville Superspeedway president said in a press release.

NASCAR fans turned out en masse in 2021 to watch Kyle Larson win the first-ever Ally 400 title. More stars, cars, and fans will return to the Superspeedway in Lebanon, Tennessee this year. If you feel the need for speed and managed to score Ally 400 tickets, you will need fan gear and other essential items to get ready for the grand racing event. Here’s a list of must-have items for the Ally 400 race day.

Wearing a hat shows your NASCAR spirit and helps protect you against sunburn, glare, and harmful UV rays from the sun. The NASCAR New Era Hat features bold Nashville Superspeedway graphics and a snapback closure for a comfortable, adjustable fit.

NASCAR fans revel in the pulse-pounding high-speed action of a race. Racecar drivers hope to cross the finish line first and watch the checkered flag fall in their honor.

You can pay tribute to that flag and Music City itself with this men’s NASCAR Checkered Flag Nashville Superspeedway T-Shirt. A split checkered flag with an NSS guitar graphic is on the front of the shirt in bold orange, yellow, and black colors. The short sleeve design and 100% cotton fabric make the tee a perfect race day pick.

NASCAR fans can’t have enough spirit wear. Show your NASCAR and Nashville Superspeedway pride in this NASCAR Checkered Flag Nashville Superspeedway Tee. The Nashville Superspeedway name pops against race cars around a track graphic on the chest. The crew neck tee is 100% cotton and printed in the U.S.A. 

Here’s another super cool fan gear option with the NASCAR New Era Golfer Snapback Adjustable Hat – Red/White. The flying black and white checkered flag looks fantastic against the bright red hat fabric and multicolor NASCAR logo below. The braided rope at the back of the bill also gives this hat a keen sense of style.

Wear your NASCAR enthusiasm loud and proud and pay tribute to the exciting 2021 NASCAR Cup Series with a retro NASCAR Cup Series Tee. The multicolor screen print graphics pop against the crisp navy t-shirt. The shirt is 100% cotton and features the 2021 NASCAR Cup Series schedule on the back.

For the ladies who love that racetrack rush, here’s a bold NASCAR Starter Women’s Highlight 3/4-Sleeve Scoop Neck T-Shirt. The red shirt with mesh shoulders looks striking behind the centered NASCAR logo. Wear the tee to show your NASCAR love at the Ally 400 and get the race action started.

Another piece of New Era NASCAR Cup Series spirit wear has arrived with 39Thirty’s Flex Hat in rich black and gray. The embroidered NASCAR Cup Series applique is front and center above the bill. The black mesh back provides breathability and adds a stretchy fit. You can wear your NASCAR colors with pride heading into the 2022 Ally 400 and beyond.

Celebrate the inaugural winner of the Ally 400 in superb style with this Kyle Larson Hendrick Motorsports Collection 2021 NASCAR Cup Series Champion Hat. The red and white hat bears Larson’s famous number “5” and the “2021 NASCAR Cup Series Champion” declaration. One side features a Hendrick Motorsports applique and the other a sleek NASCAR Cup Series Champion Applique. The hat is adjustable for a perfect fit.

Shield yourself against breezy temperatures and the wind at the 2022 Ally 400 race with Starter’s sharp NASCAR The Striker Half-Zip Pullover Jacket. Stay warm at the Nashville Superspeedway with two deep pockets and a hood. The pullover is 100% nylon and features an elastic waistband to stay snug. The embroidered NASCAR logo is on the front and back of the jacket.

If the temperatures drop at the track, you can stay warm with this NASCAR Hall of Fame Women’s Full-Zip Golf Jacket from Antigua. The classic navy color pairs well with jeans, and the water-resistant jacket has a tagless collar. You’ll be ready for cooler weather at the Nashville Superspeedway on June 26 and wherever future races lead.


What CNC Engraving Machines Are

CNC (Computer Numerical Controlled) engraving machines are high speed and precision-designed for machining and industrial engraving of metals, plastics, aluminum, graphite, ceramics and almost any non-ferrous material. They can be as simple as a home-made drilling machine for drilling a series of holes or a large complex unit with various tools and tables.

CNC machines are designed to be operated either totally unsupervised or with a few personnel overseeing a production unit consisting of a group of machines. Once programmed, the machine can be left almost completely unmanned. Many of these machines are designed to self-change tools by a predetermined sequence and reposition the component to a new side to finish the task. Manpower issues are addressed since these machines can run by themselves throughout the day.

Since they are computer programmed and operated, CNC machines are far more precise and consistent than any human guided system. CNC machining is practically error-free since the device runs according to programming specifications. Complicated machining projects can be accomplished regardless of how often the task is repeated. The product will be finished to exact specifications each time.

It is relatively easy to learn and set up programming for CNC machines. All that is needed is to enter the instructions into the computer program. Setting details from a previous job can be quickly and easily recalled so time-consuming manual changeovers are not an issue.

A typical aluminum parts machining has two tables and an automatic pallet changer. This cuts down on valuable time because one component can be machined on one table while the materials for a new component can be loaded on another. The types of CNC machines available are as varied as the tasks they can accomplish, such as turning, drilling, grinding. Machining centers can perform milling, boring, tapping, as well as complex contouring operations.

This kind of machining is not totally confined to any type of industry. These devices can also be used for working on materials like wood, plastic along with metal fabricating projects. Also available are units for domestic use. A typical CNC system for home usually include a CNC mill or lathe, a 4-axis rotary table, along with a computer and CNC programming software, and the required set of machining tools and accessories. This is ideal for those needing to produce a series of small identical components. CNC machines may be equipped with two, three, five axes on up.


Wireless VS Ethernet: Which One Is Better for Streaming?

While wireless connections provide access to the internet in the most convenient ways, Ethernet may come in handy for various online activities. When it comes to streaming, it is always a better idea to go for a reliable internet connection with minimal latency. This article will help you decide whether you need a wireless or an Ethernet connection for streaming.

Why Do You Need an Ethernet Connection for Streaming?

For streaming, your best bet is to get an Ethernet connection. Unlike wireless internet connections, it is less susceptible to interference. Since it uses a cable to deliver internet signals to your device, it establishes a dedicated connection for your device, which cannot be used for other devices. This way, it ensures that your device remains protected from security risks and threats that may occur with other internet connections, such as Wi-Fi.

Whether you are streaming video games on Twitch or movies on Netflix, it is crucial to have a stable and consistent connection that does not disrupt your streaming. With an Ethernet connection, you will get fast speeds with little to no latency. Moreover, it ensures that your stream remains secure and any sort of signal interception does not affect your data privacy.

Why Do You Need a Wireless Connection for Streaming?

With a wireless connection, you can access the internet whenever you want and wherever you go. It is best for those who don’t like to use cables for an internet connection but require a strong internet connection to carry out online tasks. You can stream on the go without compromising on your video quality. 

However, you may encounter some latency issues, which may increase as you move away from your router. Similarly, the signal strength also depends on your distance from your router. For example, your Wi-Fi signals may drop if you are in a crowded place, hotspot strength is insufficient, interference with other wireless devices, or even if you are using outdated firmware. In addition, the more interference it has, the lower its signal quality becomes, leading to lower speeds.

Which Connection Type Is Better for Streaming?

Here are some of the most important factors that determine which connection type is better for streaming:


Both, wireless and Ethernet connections are easy to set up. While wireless internet does not always require a physical connection, Ethernet needs a physical connection, depending on the number of devices connected to the same network.

Since wireless networks do not require wires or cables, they allow you to connect to the internet within a few seconds. All you need to do is, choose your preferred network from the list of available Wi-Fi networks, enter the password, and voila! You are now connected to the internet! On the other hand, Ethernet requires you to plug one end of the Ethernet cable into your device and the other end of the cable into the router. The more devices you connect, the more wires you will need. In addition, you can’t move your device to another room without disrupting your internet connection. So, if you are planning to shift your computer to the other side of your home, you will need to extend your internet connection by adding a new Ethernet cable between your router and your device. 

Speed and Stability

If you want a reliable and secure internet connection that delivers fast and consistent speeds, an Ethernet connection is best for high-quality streaming. It ensures smooth live streaming without lags. On the other hand, you are more likely to get weak signals with a wireless connection if you go out of range. Therefore, your proximity to the router determines the strength of your internet signals. In addition, wireless signals may disrupt due to radio interference or if your network is overloaded.

If you are looking for a plan that offers fast download speeds up to 1 GIG, you need to check out Mediacom offers. With blazing-fast speeds, you can connect multiple devices at the same time without experiencing slowdowns or buffering while streaming movies or games on your device.


When it comes to flexibility, Ethernet is not suitable for every device. Whereas, stationary devices, including smart TVs, game consoles, and computers are well suited for Ethernet. This is because such devices usually do not require a wired connection that needs to be plugged and unplugged frequently.

However, if you prefer streaming on the go, a wireless connection is the best option for you. You just need to enter the Wi-Fi password while connecting for the first time. Whenever you are close to the same Wi-Fi network, your device will automatically connect to it.

Wrapping Up

An Ethernet connection is great for smart TVs, desktop computers, and other devices that will remain in the same location for a long time. So, if you are going to binge-watch movies on Netflix, Mediacom Internet has the fastest speeds with a monthly data allowance of up to 6,000 GB. However, if you prefer streaming your favorite TV shows while commuting from work, go for a wireless internet connection. But, make sure that your device stays within its signal range to avoid bad connections.